The four ranges of combat are:
Most styles concentrate on one (rarely two) of the available ranges that a fight or encounter can take place. Freestyle wrestling trains entirely in grappling range, whereas Boxing exists completely in punching range. Styles like Thai Boxing are rare in that they train in more than one range. The least trained range could be said to be trapping.
“In trapping range, we can utilize the most barbaric tools on the body (headbutts, knees, elbows) that have the capacity to take an opponent out of commission. If you stay out in long range and trade bombs (punches and kicks) with someone, the bigger, stronger, faster, younger person usually wins. On the other hand, when we talk about slamming our head into someone’s face, or driving a knee into the groin, size and strength become irrelevant.”- taken from the PFS website.